What are the basic components computer network?

Basic Components of Computer Network

In this article, we will discuss the basic components of computer network, so let’s start.


A client is a program or a computer that runs on the local machine and requests from the server computer for services on a network. Client sent the request and receive data from the server.

Actually, the client machine provides an interface to a user to request services from the server machine, and the server machine responds to the client’s request to give the result.

A client can be a simple program or a whole computer that requests services from the server.

Client Server


A Server is a powerful computer machine, which provides some services to its clients. When a computer shares its resources with client machines, they are called servers. Server shares our resources from their client’s users. They can handle many clients at a time. These are also called host computers. These are the powerful machines, wait for the request to arrive from clients and then respond to them.

There are many different types of servers:

  • File servers
  • Print servers
  • Application Servers
  • DNS Servers
  • Mail Servers
  • Web Servers
  • Database Servers
  • Virtual Servers
  • Proxy Servers




A modem is a network hardware device that helps to convert signals from one computer network to another. It works as a signal translator because it translates one signal to another signal so the computers and telephone lines can interact with each other.

It is also known as a modulator-demodulator.

MO + DEM= Modulator, Demodulator

It’s used modulator and demodulator to modulate and demodulate the sine wave for encoding and decoding digital information for sending and receiving data.

how modem works

Actually, there is two type’s of signal one is analog signals and digital signals.

A computer only reads digital signals while on the internet analog signals are used. So modulator and demodulator are used where modulator converts computer’s digital signals into analog signals so data can be sent on internet and demodulator convert incoming analog signals from the internet into digital signals so that a computer can understand it.




Router is an internetworking device that receives data packets from one network and forwards it to another network. It works on the network layer (layer-3) and helps to connect two different computer networks. It allows us to connect to the internet, which is a group of multiple networks. It is the only device, which can forward packets from one network to another network.

how router works

Routers manage routing table that stores routes of various nodes in a computer network. Routing table is a list of routes stores in a router. When data needs to be sent from one node to another on the network, then the routing table is referred to in order to find the best possible route.


Switch is a network device that has multiple ports that are used to connect devices and create a network. It is called a Layer-2 device because it forward frames based on MAC addresses. It has storage capability, where a table is maintained. That’s table helps to identify every device connected to switch on the basis of MAC addresses.

What is Switch in Networking



A hub is a networking device that is used to connect multiple devices or segments on a local network. It is not an intelligent device because it does not have any memory to store device information. If a computer wants to send information to another computer, the hub broadcasts information to all the other computers, connected to the hub, that’s why it is not an intelligent device.

What is hub in networking



Channels are the medium that is used to transfer the data from one place to another place. It is used to carry data from the transmitter to the receiver. It is a path over which information travels between clients and servers in the network. Channels are the transmission media which selected on the basis of their speed and capabilities.


Network Interface Card (NIC)

NIC is a network component that is used to connect devices from the network. It works on the physical layer and the data-link layer and is responsible to exchange the computer’s data with a network. NIC collects the data from the computer and sends it to the transmission Channel.

For example: If I have a computer and I want to connect with other computers, I need a NIC card to connect the network.

Another Example, If I have a company where have 100’s of computers and I want to create a local network in my company then I need a NIC card on every computer or laptop so all computers can connect to each other.

Network Interface cards may be used for both wired and wireless connections.

Every NIC card contains a unique MAC address that can never change because their address is assigned at the factory where NIC manufactured.


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